Books and Research Papers

This isn’t an exhaustive list, but a fair amount of research on co-ops have been done and continues to grow. A great place to visit is the Canadian Co-op Research Network.


McNamara (2018) Aligning Values and Practice: A Comparative Analysis of Management Practices in Worker-Managed Co-ops Using the Co-op Index Tool


Brown, L. Novkovic, S. et al. (2015) Co-operatives for Sustainable Communities: Tools to Measure Co-operative Impact and Performance

Curl, John (2009) For All The People: Uncovering the Hidden History of Cooperation, Cooperative Movements, and Communalism in America

Davies, Margaret Llewelyn (1975) Life as We Have Known It by Co-operative Working Women (reprint from 1935 edition with introduction by Virginia Woolf)

Greenberg, Edward S. (1986) Workplace Democracy: The Political Effects of Participation

Hoffman, E. A. (2012). Co-operative Workplace Dispute Resolution. Surrey, UK: Gower Publishing Ltd.

Jackall, Robert and Levin, Henry (1983) Worker Cooperatives in America

Matthews, Race (1999) Jobs of Our Own: Building a Stakeholder Society–Alternatives to the Market and the State

Nembhard, Jessica Gordon (2015) Collective Courage: A History of African American Cooperative Economic Thought

Rothschild, Joyce and Whitt, J. Allen (1986) The Cooperative Workplace: Potentials and Dilemmas of Organizational Democracy and Participation

Thompson, David J. (1994) Weavers of Dreams: Founds of the Modern Co-operative Movement


Audebrand, L. K. (2017). Expanding the Scope of Paradox Scholarship on Social Enterprise: The Case for (Re)introducing worker cooperatives. M@n@gement, 20(4), 368-393.

Austin, J. J. (2014). Worker Cooperatives for New York City: A Vision for Addressing Income Inequality. Retrieved from New York City:

Baarda, J. (2002a). Co-op Boards’ Circle of Responsibilities. Rural Cooperative.

Baarda, J. (2002b). Cooperative Directors Face Unique Challenges. Rural Cooperator, November/December.

Bell, D. (2006). Co-operatives and Unions: Why Can’t We Just Get Along. Paper presented at the A Symposium on the Cooperative and its Workers, Saint Mary’s Unversity, Halifax, Nova Scotia.

Ben-ner, A. (1984). On the Stability of the Cooperative type of Organization. Journal of Comparative Economics, 8, 13.

Birchall, J. (2005). Cooperative Principles Ten Years On. Retrieved from Geneva, Switzerland:

Côté, D. (2003). Managing Cooperative Equilibrium: A Theoretical Framework. HEC, Montreal.

Duffey, P. (2003). Survey Results: Public Shows Strong Preference for Doing Business with Cooperatives. Rural Cooperatives.

Duffy, P., & Wadsworth, J. (2001). Coopoeratives: What They Are and the Role of Members, Directors, Managers, and Employees. (11). Washington, D.C.: Agricultural Cooperative Service Retrieved from

Errasti, A. M., Heras, I., Bakaikoa, B., & Elgoibar, P. (2003). The Internationalisation of Cooperatives: The Case of the Mondragon Cooperative Corporation. Annals of Public and Coopertive Economics, 74(4), 553-584.

Fairley, E. (2013). WAGES: Womens Action to Gain Economic Security. Retrieved from

Hoffman, E. A. (2001). Confrontations and Compromise: Dispute Resolution at a Worker Co-operative Coal Mine. Law and Social Inquiry, 555-595.

Hoffman, E. A. (2005). Dispute Resolution in a Worker Cooperative: Formal Procedures and Procedural Justice. Law & Society Review, 39(1), 51-82.

Hoffman, E. A. (2006). Exit and Voice: Organizational Loyalty and Dispute Resolution Strategies. Social Forces, 84(4), 2313-2330.

Huertas-Noble, C. (2016). Worker-owned and Unionized Worker-Owned Cooperatives: Two Tools to Address Income Inequality. Clinical Law Review, 22(2).

Hueth, B. (2013). Missing Markets and the Cooperative Firm. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the AAEA.

Lund, M. (2011). Solidarity As a Business Model. [case studies of multi-stakeholder cooperatives]. Kent, Ohio.

MacPherson, I. (1996). Background Paper to the Statement on the Cooperative Identity. Retrieved from

Navarra, C., & Tortia, E. (2014). Employer Moral Hazard, Wage Rigidity, and Worker Cooperatives: A Theoretical Appraisal. Journal of Economic Issues, 48(3), 20. doi:10.2753/JEI0021-3624480306

Nembhard, J. G. (2014). Benefits and Impacts of Cooperatives: A White Paper. In. New York City: Howard University Center on Race adn Weatlh.

Novkovic, S., Stocki, R., & Hough, P. (2009). Participation in co-operative firms: Theory, measures and impacts. Paper presented at the International Cooperative Alliance Research Conference, Oxford.

Olsen, E. (2013). The Relative Survival of Worker Cooperatives and Barriers to Their Creation. In D. Kruse (Ed.), Sharing Ownership, Profits, and Decision-Making in the 21st Century (Advances in the Economic Analysis of Participatory and Labor-Managed Firms (Vol. 14, pp. 83-107): Emerald Publishing Group.

Thompson, D. (2002). Happy Anniversary – 250 years of Cooperation in America. Retrieved from

Tonnesen, S. (2012). Stronger Together: Worker Cooperatives as a Community Economic Development Strategy. Georgetown Journal on Poverty Law & Policy, 20(Fall), 187.

Wadsworth, J., & Duffey, P. (2014). Cooperataives: What They Are and the Role of Members, Directors, Managers, and Employees. (11). Washington, DC: US Department of Agriculture Retrieved from

Warbasse, J. P. (1950). The Meaning and Methods of Cooperation: Service, Not Profits. In Cooperative Peace: Cooperative Publishing Association.

Witherell, R. (2013a). An Emerging Solidarity: Worker Cooperaitves, unions and the New Union Cooperative Model in the United States. International Journal of Labour Research, 5(2), 251-268.

Witherell, R. (2013b). Worker Cooperatives, unions, and the new union cooperative model in the United States. International Journal of Labour Research, 5(2), 251-269.

Zeuli, K. A., & Cropp, R. (2004). Cooperatives: Princiles and Practices in the 21st Century. Madison, WI.

Hoyer, M. (2015). The Power of Collaboration: Labor Unions and Worker Co-ops in the U.S. Paper presented at the Co-operatives and the World of Work, Antalya, Turkey.

Levinson, A. R. (2014). Founding Worker Cooperatives: Social Movement Theory and the Law. Nevada Law Journal, 14(322), 322-364.

Oseen, C. (2014). ’It’s not only what we say but what we do’: Pay Inequalities and Gendered Workplace Democracy in Argentinan Worker Coops. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 37(2), 219-244. doi:10.1177/0143831X14539571

Pobihushchy, S. (2003, November 13-14, 2003). Establishing a Co-operative Economy. Paper presented at the Co-op Life Conference, Montpelier, Vermont.

Viea, M. (2014). Saving More than Jobs: Transforming Workers, Businesses and Communitiies through Argentina’s Worker-Recuperated Enterprises. In The Reader Campinas. Geneva: Interational Labor Organization.